“Primary hypertension” is the commonest type of hypertension in the population; it comprises over 90% of patients and no specific causes can be identified. Nevertheless, it may be associated with factors such as obesity, high salt intake, stress or family inheritance.
Coronary heart disease is due to deposition of cholesterol and fat on the inside wall of arteries. This disease process is called atherosclerosis. Progressive atherosclerosis will cause progressive narrowing of coronary arteries or even complete blockage. This will limit the blood supply to heart muscle. When the patient exercises or is during stress, increase demand of heart muscle together with limitation of blood supply will cause chest discomfort, which is formally referred as angina.
Diabetes Mellitus (or Diabetes) is a chronic disease. It is caused by insufficiency of pancreas-secreted insulin or malfunction of insulin in the control of blood glucose level. When the blood glucose cannot be converted into energy we need or stored in the liver, excess glucose accumulated in the blood will be excreted in urine. This is called Diabetes Mellitus.
OGD is a procedure involving the use of an endoscope to examine the upper gastrointestinal tract which includes esophagus, stomach and duodenum. A gastroscope is a thin flexible tube (about 1 cm in diameter) that has a tiny video camera at the front end. The endoscope is introduced carefully and gently through the mouth into the esophagus stomach and then duodenum. Direct visual inspection of the inner lining of the digestive tract enables doctors to detect abnormalities such as ulcers and cancers.
Patients with colon cancer may not have symptom until the disease has reached advanced stages, when the treatment is difficult. The cancer usually develops from polyps, which are outgrowth from the bowel wall. Early detection and removal of polyps prevent development of colon cancer. Screening for colon polyps and cancer saves life and colonoscopy is the most sensitive method of screening.
Cystoscopy is the use of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope to examine the lower urinary system which includes urethra, bladder and prostate (male). At the front end of the endoscope, there is a tiny video camera attached. During the examination, the endoscope will be introduced gently into bladder through the urethra. Direct visual inspection helps the doctors to detect abnormalities such as stones, ulcers, inflammation, filling detect, bleeding or cancer.
Hepatitis B virus can be transmitted through blood or body fluids, such as semen and vaginal secretions; 90% of hepatitis B patients in Hong Kong are mother-to-child transmission. Other ways of transmission include sexual contact, intravenous drug users sharing syringes, etc.
Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease. We have a total of over 200 pieces of bones in our body. With aging, there is a slow loss of bone minerals. This loss is accelerated in certain health conditions, such as around menopause. The body’s skeleton becomes fragile and there is an increased risk of fracture, particularly in the spine, hips and wrists.
The macula is the yellow spot at the centre of retina in the eye is called Macular. The macula has the highest resolution power and is richest in color differentiating cells. When pathological disorder occurs in this region, it is called Maculopathy. One example of this kind of disorders is Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD). It is common after 50 years old.
Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear, or middle ear infection. Otitis media with effusion is one of the diseases of chronic otitis media. The middle ear cannot be effectively ventilated through the eustachian tube to nasal cavity. As a result, the secretion would stay in the middle ear that can cause conductive deafness.